Indonesia is the world’s fourth largest country in terms of population. While the geography and habitation varies greatly throughout the archipelago, parts of the country are notably dense in population; 60% of Indonesians live on Java Island, which comprises only 7% of the country’s total area.
Indonesia moved to a decentralized health system in 2001 and continues to work toward appropriate and successful implementation across its 33 provinces and 465 districts. Emphasis has been placed on improved access to services, but equal attention on comprehensive, integrated, and high-quality health services for women, children and adolescents is needed. Nutrition, a critical common factor in both mortality and morbidity, remains a key public health problem. Additional public health risks posed by tobacco use, lack of physical activity, unsafe water, inadequate sanitation, traffic congestion, and use of solid fuels for cooking underscore the need for integrated health promotion.